All information in this blog post came from Michel Pastoureau’s book “The Devil’s Cloth. A History of Stripes”. This blog post essentially is a very condensed summary of the book.
“I got stripes, stripes around my shoulders
I got chains, chains around my feet
I got stripes, stripes around my shoulders
And them chains, them chains,
They’re about to drag me down”
Johnny Cash – “I got stripes”
Even though no western prisoners are wearing stripes these days, it is hard to imagine not knowing what the lyrics in Johnny Cash’s song imply. The archetype of a prisoner wearing striped clothing, although not dominating the present day media, is still very strong. Besides reminding us of prisoner uniforms, stripes in clothing carry a great deal of meaning and a history so rich that it will be difficult for me to cover all of it in one blog post. Nevertheless, I will do my best to unveil some of it, touch on the meaning of wearing stripes and hopefully inspire some of you to include stripes into your wardrobe.
It is hard to pinpoint the time stripes in clothing originated, but they started to show up in paintings and literature around 12th century. Just like with prisoner uniforms mentioned by Johny Cash, stripes have almost always carried a negative stigma with relation to the person wearing them. This unfavourable connotation of stripes goes deeper than a simple dislike for stripes. Back in those days clothing was highly controlled. For example, decrees existed that prohibited clerics from wearing two coloured clothes. Plain fibre carried with it an ordinary but wholesome meaning, whereas two toned or striped clothing had a slightly more ominous significance. Animosity towards stripes goes as far as creation of laws that required certain categories of outcasts such as bastards, condemned and prostitutes to wear two coloured and striped clothing.
The adverse undertone of stripes was further perpetuated by their use in literature of the era, where the stripe carried a highly pejorative meaning. Books have great power to influence societal norms and preferences. They enable readers to extrapolate into the real world around them the characteristics attached to heroes in a book’s narrative. More often than not evil or treacherous characters in literature of that time wore stripes, thus exacerbating the attached stigma. This negative portrayal of striped clothing did not help its overall appeal with the society of that era.
The inferior status of stripes throughout history not only show up in their early presentation with stripes ascribed to societal outcasts, but also with their association to prisoners and sailors. It is not clear why the association with sailors was considered unfavourable at first, but on closer examination it becomes apparent that sailors donning stripes were crew members who perform tasks under the leadership of masters and officers. However, it can be argued that the nautical stripe evolved from the nature of the garment itself — an undershirt, which was used to retain warmth and was cut out of the fabric related to hosiery. At the time the sailor stripe was spreading throughout the Navy, production of striped clothing articles was often involuntarily due to technical reasons. Still, what is indisputable is that the marine stripe appeared on lower ranking and subordinate professions, which once again carries an unfavourable association.
Fortunately things began changing for stripes in the 16th century. During this period a new order of stripe was starting to be established and even the “positive” stripe was beginning to emerge. Although stripes still emphasize an inferior status, since they were primarily being worn by domestic staff, they were no longer derogatory in nature. This period also sees the birth of the vertical stripe, which was mostly worn by aristocrats and thus began to carry a status enhancing value.
The increase in the positive view of stripes gains even more momentum after the American Revolution. During this time the stripe carried the political and ideological meaning associated with American colonies rebelling against the British Crown. The American flag, carrying 13 red and white stripes, becomes a symbol for the fight for freedom and new ideas with the stripe itself starting to experience a rebirth. By the end of 18th century, the stripe was taking over fashion. The divide between the vertical aristocratic and horizontal peasant stripe was starting to close.
The view of stripes further benefited from advances during the Industrial Revolution. With an increase in mechanization of the production of thread and fabrics, the use of stripes in clothing and decor was beginning to expand. This expansion was furthered by the invention of the spinning machine by James Hergreave, mule Jenny by Samuel Crompton and the loom by Joseph-Mavie Jacquard. All of these technological advances have aided the positive association with stripes by allowing them to become more widespread and accessible to people of the time.
With the rise in popularity of ocean and beach culture, the less alluring sailor stripes were not only stepping out of the subservient category and onto the shore, but were also crossing into the fashion world. Striped beach clothing is predominant throughout the mid 19th century. Tents, seats, bathing suits, children’s clothing, and women’s beach dresses are nearly all striped. As the beach becomes accessible to all societal groups and not only the wealthiest, stripes were starting to become more widespread. With people of other income classes adopting the habits and fashions of the wealthiest, stripes on the beach are firmly rooted as “chic”. The popularity of the beach stripe only started to slow down in the 70’s and 80’s, but it did not disappear and was starting to move into other areas of life. First into decor, as it was being used trying to evoke exotic feelings and reminders of tropical beaches, and then further into fashion, with younger generations bringing in new trends.
Childhood stripes are another interesting phenomenon. It refers to children being dressed in striped clothing and emerged sometime in the middle of 19th century. This further improved the positive view of stripes. With children of the time wearing striped clothing, the stripe started taking on a youthful and playful meaning.
These days stripes do not carry much of an adverse association and their use is widespread, showing up everywhere from fashion to decor. Stripes have achieved and retained “chic” status for over 100 years now, ever since Coco Chanel introduced the Breton stripe in her 1917 collection. The stripe has further evolved and now it is easy to find stripes in all colours, combinations of colours and directions. There world seems to have come full circle on stripes and has seen them transition from the garments of the outcasts of society all the way to innocent children.
Even though the stripe is no longer reserved for outcasts and those on the fringes of society, it still carries a “bold” association with it. Stripes attract the eye, they creates visual discrepancy with regards to what surrounds them, and as a result always stand out. Because of this characteristic it is safe to say that stripes can be used to send a signal or make a statement, be it a warning in the form of a road crossing, a striped suit worn by Al Capone or a chic striped top worn by a modern day fashionista. The history of stripes is full of twists and turns and at times it may be unclear wether the implication behind striped clothing is positive, negative or neutral. One thing is for certain though, stripes are here to stay for good.
How do you feel about stripes? Would you incorporate stripes into your wardrobe? And what is your preference for stripes? Bold statement stripes or more of a subdued pastel stripe?